In situ treatment is useful where damage is minor and localised, for example, a tear or small detached area. Such examination should continue as the demolition work proceeds, especially with the removal of later additions. The earliest known wallpaper in Britain is thought to date from and was found covering the beams of the Dining Hall at Christ's College, halo mcc australia matchmaking Cambridge.
Its principal disadvantages are that it does not allow access to the wallpaper support or the wall for investigation and precludes work to it. On the other hand, scrapbooks, bookmarks, drawer linings, shelf paper, were often made from the remnants of wallpaper rolls. Repairs to valuable papers important to a historic restoration should be undertaken only by an experienced paper conservator. Ideally, personnel experienced in restoration work should do the preliminary research, both in documents and in the physical structure, and set the scope for the total restoration project. If custom reproductions are made, it is advisable to order slightly more than double what is actually needed.
Companies who will reproduce wallpaper. Samples of the colors should be allowed to dry so that they may be compared with the areas to be in-painted before they are used. Wallpaper History in Print. Historic wallpapers are also prone to damage from structural problems of the building itself.
Cottages and smaller homes in the early Victorian era were ordinarily plain plaster. Wallpapers of the Victorian Era. Many excellent reproductions of Victorian wallpaper are available and they are as pleasing today as they were over a hundred years ago. The wall surface itself can also be repaired and prepared with a new but historically accurate lining system on which to re-hang the conserved wallpaper. Many antique dealers occasionally handle room lots of wallpapers, and the house restorer may happen upon an important old paper in an unusual shop.
In rehanging, only very pure water soluble paste should be used. Companies offering wallpapers generated from original documents. As mentioned previously, any of the museums with wallpaper reference collections might be consulted for assistance. It is then followed by pure water, which is tamped through the paper in a similar manner to washout the bleach.
Physical examination of the wallpapers for evidence of the paper and coloring technology is the most important starting point in determining an approximate date. All edges and outlines, all openings in the walls should be checked carefully for border papers often used with the major patterns. Historic Interiors Consultants.
Manufacturers of William Morris wallpaper patterns. Particular attention should be given to the gloss of paints to be used. In turn, each area of paper should be photographed in place using black and white as well as color transparency film, site dating carefully including a scale and coding to correspond with the measured drawings.
Appendix C includes a list of firms that have done successful screen printed custom reproduction work. Even if a room is to be adapted for some heavily trafficked use, original papers can be retained as is, behind Plexiglas or other protective covering. However, the steaming process should only be done if duplicate repeats of the papers are available, as successive top layers will have to be sacrificed in uncovering a good sample of each pattern.
In determining the appropriateness of wallpaper, there are some specific points to be covered. Wallpaper in Interior Decoration. As the paper becomes moist and weakens it should be supported with screening or the blotters. If it must be stored before hanging, every effort should be made to avoid rolling the paper. It is not enough to look for wallpapers in only one part of a wall.
Victorian Wallpaper & Wallcoverings
The treatment steps are outlined and recommendations for a more stabilized environment in the future are made. Searching for more ordinary repeating patterns in publications is usually a fruitless task. Details indicating the original production process should be skillfully included. This can usually be done by delicately scraping with a small knife that has a curved blade. Figure In a temporary wallpaper storage-study area of samples can be speedily reviewed using the slides at the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, a researcher, seated at as an index.
Victorian Wallpaper - Decor
Moisture may indicate that the wall be hind the paper is wet, in which case mechanical and structural causes for this should be investigated and corrected. Therefore, the time, inconvenience, and cost involved in searching these records and stacks of uncategorized photographs for positive identification might be to no avail. They do, however, require for the most part, heavy massive woodwork, wainscoting to chair rails, deep toned colors in hangings and upholstery, and decorative chairs of the later periods. Installation of shades or blinds may prove necessary if a papered room has too much direct sunlight. Not only will an undesirable shiny finish be created by either of these methods, but neither will serve to properly readhere the pigments to the surface of the paper.
- The duplicate rolls should be carefully preserved for repairs and for future renewal when necessary.
- Thought must be given to solving the one problem without compromising the historical integrity of the whole room.
- This type of evidence is a fortunate find.
- Here, protective coating is peeled away from the tape which is fixed in place bordering the sample.
- If possible, any furniture or documents related to the building, but now in the hands of descendants, should be checked for any information helpful in the restoration.
- The success of the product depends on the careful and critical supervision of a demanding and observant customer.
- Combined with the effects of atmospheric pollutants, these can cause the breakdown of the paint layer and the paper support.
- As wallpapers are viewed as art objects which are part of another historic structure, consideration must be given to the historic structure as a whole.
- Illustrations of scenic papers may be available from the Cooper-Hewitt Museum in New York, from the Musee des Arts Decoratifs in Paris, or in several published sources see bibliography.
For American restorationists, the files of British wallpapers dating from often prove particularly helpful. Since English manufacturers printed the registry number of a paper in the margin, and since these numbers are on file, they can be most helpful in dating and identifying the wallpapers. The conservator must try to preserve this matt appearance by not saturating the pigments yet at the same time securely reattaching and consolidating the flaking layers.
Historic Wallpaper Conservation
Unless there is great difficulty in removal, this probably is the preferred procedure. Wallpaper Conservation and Restoration. When in-painting, every effort should be made to reproduce the block printed effect of the buildup of layers of flat opaque colors in shapes that have strong edges. Their website offer patterns with ample information about manufacturer, method and history.
If working from worn discolored fragments, or from photographs, colors may be checked against pristine samples in museum collections that date from the same period as the paper being reproduced. Written to accompany an exhibition at the Royal Institute of British Architects. Old boxes, trunks, hatboxes, and bandboxes should be examined with particular care, as they were frequently covered and lined as well as recovered and relined with leftover bits of wallpaper. The collection is one of the largest in the U. Ceilings should also be checked for over all patterns, borders, how to spot and center medallions.
This article from History-magazine. The wallpaper conservator is therefore armed with several treatment options with which to conserve historic wallpapers. Historic Wallpaper Collections on the Web. As with all works of art on paper, historic wallpapers are susceptible to damage by exposure to light and fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity. In making paint scrapings, paper may be discovered under layers of paint.
19th Century Wallpapers
Printing and installation articles. Cleaning with a draftsman's vinyl cleaning pad is most effective on horizontal surfaces, but may also be tried on the vertical wall. Lifting the later layer by steaming and loosening the water-soluble wallpaper paste is usually a simpler process than removing paint. In the past, walls were decorated in some fashion, usually by painting directly upon the plaster. Historic Wallpaper Consultants.
Sometimes old wallpapers are preserved on the walls of closets with nothing more hiding them than a closet door. As they become moistened and relaxed, cover a small area with glassine and mechanically stroke, pressing the loose pieces back against the paper. Use of the squeegee also reinforces the bonding of static electricity which holds the paper immobile between the plastic layers. This is the best recent book on the subject, covering English, French, American, and Chinese wallpapers, lavishly illustrated and containing a thorough bibliography. These were exquisitely hand-painted to depict stylised gardens of flowers, trees and birds, or scenes of traditional daily life in China.
Surface treatments are often carried out in situ, such as the removal of non-ingrained dirt or dust and the consolidation of some types of loose paint media. Removal and re-hanging are the most interventive treatments open to the conservator, and only take place if wall or wallpaper are severely deteriorated. These should be studied for any references to wallpaper or other interior finishes. Other methods involve dry, physical techniques using spatulas and blunt knives to work behind the wallpaper. Superficial cleaning of the paper by vacuuming, while protecting it with fine nylon screening, may be all that is needed.
Before repair, demolition, or restoration begins, a search should be made for wallpaper still on the walls in the structure itself. Sometimes the horizontal seams in early handmade hanging papers are discernable through layers of paint, as are the vertical edges of later papers. It is essential, despite any ensuing research, that a copy of each type of sample be retained by the preservation project.
Nevertheless, their adaptation to more modern homes can be made with care and thought. The correct synthetic adhesives to use will vary according to the color, thickness and surface appearance of each area of flaking paint. But these volumes are rare and difficult to consult outside of major research libraries. If a number of layers of wallpaper are found, bahai dating a basic decision should be made within the context of the goals of the overall project regarding which of the wall finishes should remain exposed. National Trust for Historic Preservation.